Pioglitazone is used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes. According to pharmacological studies, this develops a glycemic mechanism while lessening the circulating insulin levels. This also improves the sensitivity to insulin in muscles. This medication is used along with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood pressure. Proper control of diabetes may lower your risk of heart attack and stroke. Controlling high blood pressure helps also prevent;

  • Loss of limbs
  • Kidney damage
  • Blindness
  • Nerve problems
  • Sexual function problems

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition. That it affects the way your body metabolizes sugar. Glucose or sugar is an important source of fuel for your body. With this condition, your body either resists the effects of insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels. There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes mellitus but losing weight, eating well, and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise are not enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

Pioglitazone is a diabetes drug called glitazones or a thiazolidinedione-type. This helps restore your body’s proper response to insulin. Therefore, it lowers your blood sugar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved this prescription. Pioglitazone is supplied as a tablet for oral use. Each tablet is available in the dosage forms of 15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg. The tablet contains Pioglitazone as an active ingredient. It is an odorless white crystalline powder that is slightly soluble in ethanol and very slightly soluble in acetone and acetonitrile.

How does Pioglitazone work?

People with diabetes have a deficiency or absence of a hormone produced by the pancreas called insulin. Insulin is the main hormone responsible for the control of sugar in the blood. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. The cells of the body are also resistant to the low levels of insulin circulating in the blood. Insulin would normally make the cells remove sugar from the blood, therefore in type 2 diabetes mellitus blood sugars level can raise too high.

Pioglitazone helps lower blood glucose levels. It is by increasing the sensitivity of fat, liver, and muscle cells. This enables the cells to remove glucose from the blood more effectively. This medication also lessens the amount of glucose produced by the liver. It also preserves the functioning of the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. The overall effect of this drug is to help the body control blood sugar levels and prevent them from becoming too high.

How to use Pioglitazone?

The prescribed dosage for this medication is based on your medical condition and response to the treatment. It is important that you take this medication exactly as it is given by your doctor. You should not take less or more often than the prescription. Your doctor may direct you to start at a lower dose and gradually increase it. Let your doctor know if your condition worsens or if it does not improve.

Pioglitazone is to be taken by mouth usually once a day or as directed by your doctor. You may take each dose with or without a meal. It is important to continue taking this even if you feel well. Do not suddenly stop taking Pioglitazone without the consent of your doctor. To help you remember, take it at the same time and in the same way each day. Swallow the tablet as a whole with a full glass of water. Do not break, chew, or crush it. Drink plenty of fluids while having this treatment. Doing so may lessen the risk of certain side effects. If you missed a dose, take it as soon as you remember it. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to make up for the missed dose.

What are the side effects of Pioglitazone?

Common side effects:

  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Gradual weight gain
  • Tooth problems
  • Back pain
  • Mouth pain
  • Cold or flu-like symptoms (sneezing, stuffy nose, or sore throat)

Let your doctor know right away if you have these serious side effects:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Blood in the urine
  • Stomach pain
  • Painful urination
  • Dark urine
  • Shortness of breath
  • Urinating more than usual
  • Chest pain
  • Swelling or rapid weight gain
  • Itching
  • Feeling unwell
  • Clay-colored stools
  • Loss of appetite
  • Increased thirst or hunger
  • Blurred vision, vision changes or loss
  • Weakness
  • Pale skin
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Yellowing skin or eyes (jaundice)
  • Sudden unusual pain in your hand, arm, or foot

Get emergency medical help if you have any signs of an allergic reaction such as:

  • Hives
  • Trouble breathing
  • Swelling of your face, lips, throat, or tongue

Warnings and Precautions

  • This prescription should not be used as a substitute for eating unhealthy and taking regular exercise.
  • This can cause some people to put on weight. Check your weight regularly and let your doctor know if you gain any weight.
  • Your doctor may have regular blood tests on you to check your liver function while having this medication.
  • Pioglitazone may sometimes cause fluid retention that may cause or worsen heart failure. You should let your doctor know if you experience any shortness of breath or excessive weight gain while taking this drug.
  • If you notice any problems with your eyesight, call your doctor right away you may need to have an eye test.
  • Before taking a dose, inform your doctor if you have a medical history of heart disease, liver disease, or anemia.
  • You may experience dizziness, blurred vision, or drowsiness due to extremely low or high blood sugar. Do not use any machinery or drive that needs your alertness and clear vision.
  • While having this medication, limit alcoholic beverages.
  • This is not recommended for use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age.
  • Keep this drug at room temperature far from heat and moisture.